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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| January-March  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 12, 2016

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Presbyopic correction coverage and barriers to the use of near vision spectacles in rural Abuja, Nigeria
Rilwan Chiroma Muhammad, Mustapha Abubakar Jamda
January-March 2016, 3(1):20-24
Purpose: To determine the presbyopia correction coverage and the barriers to the use of near vision spectacles in rural Gwagwalada, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Eligible subjects were refracted, with their distance correction in place, near vision was tested and corrected using World Health Organization guidelines. A pretested near vision-related questionnaire was administered to collect information on spectacle use, barriers to the use of near vision spectacles and willingness to pay for replacement spectacles. Presbyopic correction coverage, met, and unmet presbyopic spectacle needs were calculated. Results: The presbyopic correction coverage for the sample was 21%, the met need was 11.2%, and the "unmet presbyopic need" was 42.1%. Presbyopic correction coverage was significantly higher for males, skilled workers, and those with at least secondary education. Barriers to obtaining near vision spectacles included cost (51.3%) and spectacles not being a priority (19.7%). Skilled workers and those with at least secondary education were willing to pay up to one thousand naira ($5) for replacement spectacles. Conclusion: Presbyopic correction coverage is low with a large unmet need. A community-based approach to the provision of spectacles that are new, of good quality, accessible, and affordable is needed.
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Immunohistochemical evaluation of the antidiabetic potentials of S-allyl-cysteine (Garlic) and mangiferin (Mango) in type 2 diabetic rat models
IA Iliya, B Mohammed, SA Akuyam, JD Yaro, ZM Bauchi, M Tanko, J Idoko, IL Aghemunu, B Yusuf
January-March 2016, 3(1):25-31
Background: Diabetes mellitus is now one of the largest emerging pandemics of our time. Of the different types of diabetes mellitus, type 2 accounts for 90% of diabetic cases in humans worldwide. Insulin resistance followed by abnormal secretion of insulin from the pancreatic β-cells underlies the symptomatology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Most investigations have assessed the hypoglycaemic potentials of s-allyl-cysteine and mangiferin by focusing on the biochemical and or pathophysiological changes. The histological and immunohistochemical changes have on the other hand received less attention. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic potentials of s-allyl-cysteine (SAC), mangiferin (MAN) and a composite mixture of both (COM) in equal volume ratio (1:1) in type 2 diabetic Wistar rat models. Objective: This was achieved by evaluating the secretion of insulin in the pancreatic islets of diabetic and non-diabetic rats using immunohistochemistry techniques. Methodology: Eighteen (18) apparently healthy male albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were grouped into 6 groups designated as non-diabetic control (NDC), diabetic control (DC), SAC, MAN, COM and glibenclamide (GLC). Insulin resistance was induced by first feeding the rats with a high-fat diet for a period of 10 weeks followed by a low dose of streptozotocin injection to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic interventions was by the administration of 50 mg/kg body weight of SAC solution, 40 mg/kg body weight of MAN solution, equal volume ratio of both (SAC:MAN) and 5 mg/kg body weight of GLC. Results: Therapeutic interventions with the bioactive compounds significantly improved the glucose tolerance ability by ameliorating the hyperglycaemic condition in the diabetic rats which was significant at P < 0.05. Similarly, immunohistochemistry evaluation of the islet β-cells showed an increase in insulin secretion suggesting an improvement in glycaemic control and an eventual commitment of glucose to glycolysis. Conclusion: The amelioration of the type 2 diabetic mellitus by the bioactive compound therapies was due to the bioactive-mediated anti-hyperglycaemic and insulin release potentials. These potentials were observed to be more pronounced in the SAC group, followed by MAN group, then GLC group and lastly by COM group.
  1 2,751 245
Facial biometrics using Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm and anthropological facts which prove that Kebbi and Zamfara Hausas are Hausa Bakwai
Adelaja Abdulazeez Akinlolu
January-March 2016, 3(1):45-52
Background: Anthropology studies human biology and culture. This study aims to develop a novel image-processing algorithm which can be used to compute cephalometric measurements for face recognition of individuals of any ethnic group or tribe and to produce forensic facial database of Hausas. Materials and Methods: Three hundred Hausas of Kebbi State (150 males and 150 females, aged 18-36 years) were selected as subjects for the study with informed consents and when established as Hausas by parents and grandparents. Height, body weight, and cephalometric parameters (evaluated on three-dimensional facial photographs) were measured on subjects. The novel Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm was developed using modified row method of computer programming. Facial width, total face height, short forehead height, long forehead height, upper face height, nasal bridge length, nose height, morphological face height, and lower face height computed from readings of Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm were analyzed using z-test (P ? 0.05) of 2010 Microsoft Excel statistical software. Results: Biological examination of the anthropological history of Hausas proved that Hausas of Kebbi and Zamfara belong to the Hausa Bakwai States. Comparative statistical analyzes of facial measurements showed sexual dimorphism (P > 0.05) with nonsignificant higher averages in Hausa males compared to females. Hausa males have the leptoprosopic face type while Hausa females have the hyperleptoprosopic face type based on classifications of face types from facial indices. Conclusions: Hausas of Kebbi and Zamfara belong to the Hausa Bakwai States. The novel Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm can be used to compute biometrics for face recognition. Furthermore, sexual dimorphism exists between Hausa males and females.
  1 3,603 222
Isolated tuberculous splenic abscess in a HIV-positive patient
Abubakar Ahmed, Ballah Akawu Denue, Ahmed Hammagabdo
January-March 2016, 3(1):53-56
Tuberculous splenic abscess is a rare cause of pyogenic splenic abscess and occurs most often in the setting of an immunosuppressive state. It is a life-threatening condition associated with high mortality without prompt management. The diagnosis can be challenging as it has no characteristic clinical and radiological findings. Hence high index of suspicion, imaging studies including ultrasound-guided aspiration of the abscess under aseptic technique is helpful in its diagnosis. We report a 32-year-old patient with HIV infection who presented with 5 weeks history of abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, and significant weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed splenomegaly with multiple areas of mixed echogenicity. About 30 ml of foul smelling, creamy dark brown diagnostic, and therapeutic aspirate drained under trans-abdominal ultrasound scan guidance yielded positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) under culture. Our patient died on the 12 th day of admission before bacteriology result. Tuberculous Splenic abscess could be fatal it not promptly managed; it should be considered in patients presenting with fever and abdominal pain especially in the setting of HIV infection. Due to lack of characteristic clinical and imaging findings, it poses a serious diagnostic dilemma with attendant consequences as occurred in our case. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of the abscess under aseptic technique is helpful in its diagnosis. Empiric anti-TB therapy should be considered in patients that failed to respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics in highly endemic areas.
  - 2,455 171
The global contemporary diseases outbreak: An enigmatic challenge to medical science
Sunday Samuel Adebisi
January-March 2016, 3(1):1-2
  - 2,625 196
Radiographic evaluation of lateral chest wall soft-tissue thickness in adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Zaria, Nigeria
MZ Ibrahim, ND Chom, AU Hamidu, MO Atalabi, Inah Grace, AM Tabari
January-March 2016, 3(1):15-19
Background: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) has high morbidity and mortality. It kills an estimated 2-3 million people a year with 95-98% of this mortality in developing countries. Nigeria ranks 4 th among 22 high burden countries in the world. It is associated with marked weight loss which can be evident at the lateral chest wall soft tissue thickness on the chest radiographs. Objectives: To compare the lateral chest wall soft tissue thickness on the chest radiographs of normal adult subjects and pulmonary TB patients in Zaria, also to determine sex difference in the lateral chest wall thickness in aforementioned subjects. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted over a six month period at the Radiology Department of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Two hundred adults who were bacteriologically proven to have pulmonary tuberculosis were consecutively recruited into the study as cases. The same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals that had chest radiograph grossly normal were recruited as controls. Their lateral chest wall soft tissue thickness (subcutaneous fat and muscle layers) on the chest radiographs was measured. Results: A total of 400 patients, aged 18 to 70 years. Average age was 39.12 ± 11.89years.They were 135 (62.5%) females and 65 (37.5%) males The mean and standard deviation obtained for pre-treated PTB patients and control group were 12.66 ± 2.63 mm and 19.37 ± 2.65 mm respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, no significant increase is noted in lateral soft tissue thickness among different sexes. Conclusion: The lateral soft tissue thickness (muscle and fat) was generally lower in PTB patients compared to the healthy individuals.
  - 2,613 222
Hearing and audiometric estimates in a blind population in North-Western, Nigeria
Abdulazeez Ahmed, Emmanuel Raphael Abah, Kehinde K Oladigbolu
January-March 2016, 3(1):8-14
Background: In our environment there is lack of awareness about the specific effects that hearing loss has on a blind person. The early identification of deafness and its early treatment have clearly been shown to lead to significant improvements in a child's social and educational achievement. There is also evidence that comprehensive examination of students in boarding schools usually leads to rapid identification of conditions predisposing or associated with preventable ear diseases. Objective: This study aims to estimate prevalence of hearing impairment and other otological problems among blind students in Kaduna State special education school. Subjects and Methods: All consenting, consecutive students were recruited and assessed using the WHO Ear and Hearing disorders survey protocol. Otoscopy and audiometric air conduction thresholds were established separately for the left and right ear of each subject respectively, using frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000Hz to estimate mean hearing thresholds. Results: A total of 58 students were recruited for this study with a prevalence of hearing impairment of 17.2%. The age of the students ranged from 10 to 25years with a mean age of 15.53years (SD: 3.3years). There were 22 (37.9%) females. Pure Tone Audiometry for the right ear revealed a minimum hearing threshold of 15dBHL and maximum of 83.75dBHL, with a mean hearing threshold of 22.03dBHL (SD: 1.20). Similarly, the left ear had a minimum threshold of 12.50dB and a maximum of 28.75dBHL, with a mean of 20.50dBHL (SD: 0.40). Five students (8.6%) had unilateral hearing impairment of variable severity. Cerumen auris (wax) was the commonest 18 (31%) otologic disorder. Conclusion: Efforts are needed toward strengthening hearing screening with provision of hearing aids for the institutionalized blind or persons with dual disabilities.
  - 2,659 203
Histological and biochemical evaluation of the antidiabetic potentials of s-allyl-cysteine and mangiferin in type 2 diabetic rat models
IA Iliya, B Mohammed, SA Akuyam, JD Yaro, JA Timbuak, M Tanko, AJ Nok
January-March 2016, 3(1):32-40
Biochemical and histological assessments was carried out on the anti-diabetic potentials of s-allyl-cysteine (SAC) and mangiferin (MAN) in Wistar rats models induced with type 2 diabetes mellitus by feeding the rats with a high fat diet for 10 weeks followed by a low dose injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Therapeutic interventions with 50 mg/kg body weight of (SAC) and 40 mg/kg body weight of (MAN) and a combined therapy (COM) of both SAC and MAN in equal volume ratios (1:1) for 14 days showed that there was a significant improvement in the glucose tolerance ability of the diabetic treated rats (P < 0.05). Consequently, the activities of hepatic pathophysiological enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, ALT; Aspartate aminotransferase, AST; Alkaline phosphatase, ALP), as well as glycosylated haemoglobin levels were significantly ameliorated in the diabetic treated rat models (P < 0.05). Histomorphometrical examinations of stained pancreatic tissue sections showed a reduction in the total surface area of islets in the diabetic control rats which was however significantly improved in the diabetic treated rats (P < 0.05) except the COM treated group. Subsequent histomorphological evaluation also showed necrosis and vacuolization of islet β-cells to be reasonably reduced in the diabetic treated rats but to a lesser extent in the COM treated group.
  - 2,968 265
Nutritional iodine status of pregnant women in Zaria, North-Western Nigeria
Mohammed El-Bashir Jibril, Fayeofori M Abbiyesuku, IS Aliyu, AJ Randawa, R Adamu, SA Akuyam, M Manu, HM Suleiman, S Adamu, R Yusuf, A Mohammed
January-March 2016, 3(1):41-44
Background: Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide, especially in pregnant women and young children. It is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation all over the world. Few among the devastating outcomes of iodine deficiency in pregnancy are increased perinatal mortality, abortions, stillbirths, neonatal hypothyroidism, goiter, and congenital anomalies. Objective: To assess the nutritional iodine status of pregnant women in Zaria. Methods: Four hundred subjects were recruited for this study consisting of three hundred apparently healthy pregnant women and one hundred apparently healthy nonpregnant age-matched controls. Random urine samples were collected and analyzed for iodine by modified Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info 3.5.3 to obtain the mean ages and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for pregnant women, controls and then for each trimester of pregnancy. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean ages ± standard deviation for pregnant women and controls were 25.41 ± 5.98 and 26.70 ± 5.83 years, respectively (P > 0.05). Median UIC for pregnant women and controls were 193 μg/L and 205 μg/L, respectively. Trimester-specific UICs were 250 μg/L, 154 μg/L, and 150 μg/L for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. The percentage of women with iodine deficiency increased with advancing gestational age. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Zaria were iodine sufficient. There was a progressive decline in median UIC from the first through the third trimester.
  - 4,762 304
Molecular mechanisms of insulin signaling
IA Iliya, B Mohammed, SA Akuyam, AJ Nok, ZM Bauchi, M Tanko, JA Timbuak, B Yusuf
January-March 2016, 3(1):3-7
Insulin signaling pathway is an important biochemical pathway that affects glucose homeostasis in the body. The pathway can be influenced by a variety of factors ranging from fed-fasting states, stress levels, diseases and even hormones. The pathway is a signal transduction pathway that comprises of trigger mechanisms which serve as signals throughout insulin targeted cells for the purpose of metabolic actions (glucose homeostasis) as well as mitogenic actions in the body. In pathological conditions, the signal-flow in this pathway can get disrupted resulting in serious metabolic and mitogenic disturbances in the body.
  - 2,851 320