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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 79-84

Epidemiology and Clinical Outcomes of Community Acquired Pneumococcal Infection in North-West Nigeria


1 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Science, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Microbiology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Garba Iliyasu
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/2384-5147.157429

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Introduction: Pneumococcal infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a paucity of data on pneumococcal infection in Nigeria. We aimed to determine the epidemiology and clinical outcome of pneumococcal infection in a Tertiary Referral Center in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, hospital-based study on patients with community acquired pneumococcal infections. All studied subjects had clinical evaluation and relevant laboratory investigations. The outcome was defined as mortality. Analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics with differences and relationships determined using Student's t-test, Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests as appropriate, with P < 0.05 regarded as significant. Result: Three hundred and two cases of bacteriologically proven community acquired pneumonia (241/302), bacteremia (38/302) and meningitis (23/302) were screened, out of which 125/241 (51.7%), 7/23 (30.4%) and 8/38 (21.1%) were pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis and pneumococcal bacteremia, respectively. Most of the patients, 87/140 (69.3%) had comorbidity conditions. The overall mortality rate was 12.9%. Chronic heart disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.143; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.032-0.638), human immunodeficiency virus infection (OR = 2.309; 95% CI = 1.258-4.241), age ≥65 years (OR = 6.397; 95% CI = 2.181-18.746), and infection with multi-drug resistant Pneumococcus (OR = 4.089; 95% CI = 1.274-13.125) were identified as independent risk factors for mortality. Conclusion: The Pneumococcus is a common cause of community acquired infections among adults in northwestern Nigeria, with associated high mortality.


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