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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-4

Pathologic characteristics and management of renal cell carcinoma in Zaria, Nigeria

1 Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Ahmadu Bello University/Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University/Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed Muhammed
Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State
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DOI: 10.4103/2384-5147.151559

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Background: The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been on the increase. Small (early stage) RCC is potentially curable by surgery; however, advanced RCC has a very poor prognosis. Recent advances in the treatment of advanced/metastatic RCC have improved the hitherto gloomy outcome. Objectives: To determine the clinical presentation, pathologic characteristics and survival outcome of patients managed for RCC in our center. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data retrieved from case notes, operation registers and histopathology records of all the patients that underwent nephrectomy for RCC over a 10-year period (2004-2013). Details of the clinical presentation, evaluation, histopathologic characteristics, treatment and outcome were recorded. Data were displayed in charts and tables and survival analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Results: A total of 51 patients had nephrectomy for RCC during the period of study. The mean age was 43.1 years standard deviation 15.3 with a male-to-female ratio of 2:3. An unexpected finding was the relatively high incidence of right-sided tumors 35 (68.6%) compared to left side 14 (27.5%). Over 90% of the patients had advanced disease (T3 or greater). It was also observed that most of the young patients were females and had predominantly right-sided tumors. Clear cell RCC accounted for the most common histologic type 38 (74.5%). Only 6 patients had incidental (early) disease, and they had the best outcome. Overall survival was poor but patients who had adjuvant treatment fared relatively better. Conclusion: RCC remains a highly lethal urologic malignancy. Recent advances in targeted molecular therapies have improved the outcome of the advanced disease. In our environment, the outcome has remained dismal due to multiple factors, including late detection, cost and relative scarcity of the new treatment modalities.

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