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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 145-147

Stature estimation using regression equations from hand dimensions among hausa neonates of kano state, Nigeria


1 Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodio University Sokoto, Nigeria

Date of Submission13-Jul-2014
Date of Acceptance21-Jul-2014
Date of Web Publication17-Aug-2014

Correspondence Address:
M H Modibbo
P O. BOX 13793, Kano State
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/2384-5147.138946

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Stature (ST) (or height) of an individual is useful information for making forensic identifications. Before estimating ST, one must determine the race, sex, and age of the individual as ST varies with these variables. Most ST estimation has been reported on adults, but there is a paucity of data in the subadult group. Objectives: Firstly, the study aimed at finding the relationship (correlation) between ST and hand dimensions (hand length [HL] and hand breadth [HB]). Secondly, is to form linear regression equations that can be used to estimate ST among the Hausa neonates. Materials and Methods: A total of 549 Hausa neonates (0-28 days) were involved in the study. HL was measured from the mid-point of the distal wrist crease, to the tip of the middle finger, while HB was measured from the head of the fifth to the head of second-metacarpal bone. ST was also measured as the projective distance between the highest point on the head (vertex), and the most posterior projecting point of the heel. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between ST and hand dimensions. Regression equations were formed for each of the measured parameters for both sexes. Conclusions: The result showed that hand dimensions can be used to estimate ST in Hausa neonates of Kano State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Hand breadth, hand length, Hausa neonates, stature


How to cite this article:
Modibbo M H, Adebisi S S, Taura M G, Rabiu F I, Garzali M B. Stature estimation using regression equations from hand dimensions among hausa neonates of kano state, Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Afr J Med 2014;1:145-7

How to cite this URL:
Modibbo M H, Adebisi S S, Taura M G, Rabiu F I, Garzali M B. Stature estimation using regression equations from hand dimensions among hausa neonates of kano state, Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Afr J Med [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Nov 26];1:145-7. Available from: https://www.ssajm.org/text.asp?2014/1/3/145/138946


  Introduction Top


Anthropometry may be defined as a technique of expressing the form of the human body quantitatively. Earlier studies reveal that anthropometric techniques have been commonly used to estimate stature (ST) using bone length, skeletal remains and unknown body parts by anthropologists, medical scientists and anatomists for over a decade. [1],[2],[3] Despite the relationships between body parameters that have been determined, it has been emphasized that these vary from population to population and between ethnic groups due to differences in nutrition and levels of physical activity. [4] Therefore, there is a need to estimate ST of different populations to establish standards of various ethnic groups. [5],[6] Hand morphometry can provide relevant information in investigative processes at the scene of a crime. In its most general sense, applied anthropometry is used to identify access and solve practical problems. It is a very good indicator of nutritional and health status of an individual and the community. [7] There is a paucity of data on ST estimation among Hausa neonates of Kano State origin, therefore, the need for this study.


  Materials and methods Top


The subjects consisted of 549 full term, randomly selected neonates (294 males and 255 females) born to Hausa parents of Kano State origin, with no external congenital anomaly or physical deformity. Grand parentage criteria were used in selecting the neonates of Hausa origin.

Hand length (HL) was measured in cm, from the palmar surface of the hand as a straight distance from the mid-point of the distal wrist crease, to the tip of the middle finger using a plastic measuring tape, while hand breadth (HB) was measured in cm, from the head of the fifth to second-metacarpal bone using a sliding Vernier caliper from the palmar surface of the hand. ST was measured as the projective distance between the highest point on the head (vertex), and the most posterior projecting point of the heel, using infant measuring mat in the supine position. The subjects were measured for the parameters (according to standard measurement techniques), using the left side of the body. [8],[9]

Data Analysis

SPSS 15.0 (IBM, for Windows Evaluation Version) for windows was used for data analysis. The data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Linear regression equations for estimation of ST were formed for each of the measured parameters.


  Results Top


[Table 1] highlighted the mean values ± SD and range among the male and female subgroups. It was found that the mean ± SD. Value for ST in the male group was 49.48 cm ± 3.23 cm SD, with minimum and maximum values of 40.00 cm and 56.00 cm respectively. The mean ± SD, minimum and maximum values for HL were 6.83 cm ± 0.47, 5.20 cm and 8.00 cm respectively. The mean ± SD. Value for HB was 3.35 cm ± 0.31 SD, with minimum and maximum values of 2.50 cm and 4.30 cm.
Table 1: Descriptive statistics of the measured parameters (cm) among male and female subgroups


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Correlation Between the Measured Parameters

[Table 2] shows the gender differences in correlation between ST and the measured parameters in both sexes. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained between ST and the measured parameters. Among the male subgroup, HB had the highest correlation value of 0.65, while HL had correlation value of 0.60, (all at P ≤ 0.01). In the female subgroup, HL had the highest correlation value of 0.56, (P ≤ 0.01), and HB had correlation value of 0.55 (P ≤ 0.01).
Table 2: Gender differences in correlation values (r) of the measured parameters (cm) among Hausa neonates of Kano State, Nigeria


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  Discussion Top


The main objectives of the study are to find a relationship (correlation) between ST and hand dimensions (HL and HB), and to form linear regression equations from these dimensions, which can be used for ST estimation. Accuracy of the equation has been checked for, by comparing the actual ST with estimated ST.

The study had found a positive correlation between ST and HB of +0.65 in the male subjects, while the correlation of ST with HL in the same male group was found to be +0.60. In the female category, HL was found to have the highest correlation value of +0.56, and HB had correlation value of +0.55. The correlation values of the male subgroup were higher than those of the female subgroup.

Linear Regression Equations

[Table 3] highlighted the linear regression equations between stature and the measured parameters. Regression equations were plotted at 95% confidence interval.
Table 3: Gender linear regression equations for stature (cm) estimation from the measured parameters among Hausa neonates of Kano State, Nigeria


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In a study conducted on prediction of personal ST based on the HL, 258 medical students (140 male and 118 female) of the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka were considered. It was found that a significant positive correlation exists between ST and HL which corroborates the findings of the present study. [10]

The study was also conducted to examine the relationship between ST and dimensions of hands and feet among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh - A North Indian endogamous population. [11] HL, HB, foot length and foot breadth of 246 subjects were considered. The result revealed that, among the upper-limb parameters, HB was the best estimate of ST, which is in agreement with the present study.


  Conclusion Top


The study has been successful in finding the correlation between ST and hand dimensions, and regression equations were formulated which can be used to estimate ST in Hausa neonates of Kano State, Nigeria.


  Acknowledgment Top


The authors would like to acknowledge the participants and their parents for giving us consent to conduct the study. Our sincere appreciation goes to the management and staff of Murtala Muhd Specialist Hospital Kano for the cooperation given to us.

 
  References Top

1.Beddoe J. On the stature of the older races of England as estimated from the long bones. J R Anthropol Inst 1887-1888;17:202-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Ozaslan A, Iscan MY, Ozaslan I, Tugcu H, Koç S. Estimation of stature from body parts. Forensic Sci Int 2003;132:40-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Pearson K. Mathematical contribution to the theory of evaluation. V. On the reconstruction of the stature of prehistoric races. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 1899;192:169-244.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Malina RM. Physical activity and training: Effects on stature and the adolescent growth spurt. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994;26:759-66.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Bhatnagar DP, Thapar SP, Batish MK. Identification of personal height from the somatometry of the hand in Punjabi males. Forensic Sci Int 1984;24:137-41.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Saxena SK. A study of correlations and estimation of stature from hand length, hand breadth and sole length. Anthropol Anz 1984;42:271-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Adebisi SS. Sex identification from the Skull of the Hausa/Fulani in Northern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2003;2:22-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Martin R, Sallar K. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in Systematischer. Stuttgart: Fischer Darstellung; 1959.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Allbrook D. The estimation of stature in British and East African males. Based on tibial and ulnar bone lengths. J Forensic Med 1961;8:15-28.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Nanayakkara C, Isurani I, Nadeeka P. Prediction of personal stature based on the hand length. Galle Med J 2009;14:1.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Krishan K, Sharma A. Estimation of stature from dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population. J Forensic Leg Med 2007;14:327-32.  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
  Acknowledgment
   References
   Article Tables

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