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   2015| July-September  | Volume 2 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 3, 2015

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Evaluation of pattern of tubo-peritoneal abnormalities potentially responsible for infertility in Zaria, Nigeria: hysterosalpingographic assessment
Reuben Omokafe Lawan, Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye, Polite Onwuhafua, Ahmed Hamidu
July-September 2015, 2(3):110-116
Background: Structural abnormalities on hysterosalpingography (HSG) are among the important factors in the evaluation of female infertility. Aim and Objective: This study is mainly concerned with the pattern of tubal and peritoneal abnormalities and their effects on fertility outcome. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 220 consecutive patients who underwent HSG between December, 2011 and May, 2013, at Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Clinical notes and radiological findings were analyzed for demographic data, tubal and peritoneal pathologies. Fertility outcome in patients with abnormal findings was compared with those with normal findings. Results: A total of 121 (55.0%) patients had normal tubes on HSG. Tube abnormalities were found in 99 (45.0%) patients; 37 (37%) patients with primary and 62 (63%) patients with secondary infertility. Totally, 203 (92.3%) patients had normal peritonea contrast medium spillage on HSG. Peritoneal cavity abnormality (pelvic adhesion) affected 17 (7.7%) patients; 8 (47%) patients with primary and 9 (53%) patients with secondary infertility. The fertility outcome showed that after 1-year of follow-up, 3 (2.6%) of the 116 patients with abnormal findings (tubal and peritoneal abnormalities) got pregnant, while 25 (34.7%) of the 72 patients with normal findings (tubal, peritoneum, cervical canal and endometrial cavity) got pregnant. The difference noted was statistically significant (P = 0.0000). Conclusion: Fertility outcome in patients with tubo-peritoneal abnormalities at HSG was low.
  5,457 243 -
Sonographic measurement of renal dimensions of adults in northwestern Nigeria: a preliminary report
Sadisu Mohammed Maaji, Odunko Daniel, Bappa Adamu
July-September 2015, 2(3):123-127
Background: The kidney size of a patient is a valuable diagnostic parameter in urological and nephrology practice. Renal size may be an indicator for the loss of kidney mass and, therefore, kidney function. Because many renal disorders are associated with changes in the sizes of the kidneys, normative standards for assessing renal size have been developed and are widely used in clinical practice. Ultrasound imaging is relatively inexpensive, fast, noninvasive, and free of radiation and has largely replaced the intravenous urogram as the first modality for the evaluation of the urinary system. The aim of this study was to establish some normal preliminary renal dimensions data of Nigerian population in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Renal ultrasound measurements were performed on 104 consecutive volunteers without known kidney pathology in a tertiary institution between January and December 2013. Ethical permit was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the Hospital. There were 50 females and 54 males. Before proceeding to ultrasound scanning, the procedure was explained to the respondents, and their consent obtained. The longitudinal length, width, thickness and volume of the right and left kidney were measured. In addition, the age, sex, weight, body mass index, and height of the respondents were recorded. All renal scans were done with a single real-time dynamic ultrasound scanner (concept D) using a 3.5 MHZ curvilinear probe. Hard copy images were taken for documentations, and all the measurements were done by two trained radiologists to reduce intraobserver errors. Results: A total of 104 volunteers, 50 females and 54 males were scanned. The mean age was 30.4 ± standard deviation 19 years (18-70). The mean kidney length was 11.3 ± 8.8 and 11.6 ± 9.8 for right and left kidney, respectively. The mean height and weight was 1.67 ± 0.85 and 70.9 ± 11.2, respectively. The mean kidney width was 4.4 ± 0.71 and 5.2 ± 5.26 for right and left kidney, respectively. The mean renal thickness was 4.7 ± 0.67 and 4.5 ± 0.68 for right and left kidney, respectively. The renal volume was 109.6 ± 29.3 on the right and 119.7 ± 32.8 on the left. The body mass index was calculated to be 25.1 ± 3.96 (16.18) and 26.0 ± 5.36 (24.7) for female and male, respectively. Renal measurements were correlated with the subject's height, weight, body mass index using the Pearson's correlation. The strongest correlation with renal volume is age, the correlation coefficient was 0.997 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We established valuable normal values of renal dimensions in the adult Nigerian population (North Western region). The weight, height, body mass index were also taken into consideration with positive correlations between renal volume and age, height, and body mass index.
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The prevalence of neural tube defects in live born neonates in Kano, North-Western Nigeria
Lofty-John Chukwuemeka Anyanwu, Barnabas Danborno, Wilson Oliver Hamman
July-September 2015, 2(3):105-109
Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital malformations of the cranium, spine, and nervous system. About 350,000 infants are born with NTDs yearly worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and spectrum of NTDs in live-born neonates in the Kano Metropolis of North-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of all live-born neonates in three selected hospitals in the Kano metropolis between April 2013 and December 2013. A descriptive study design was employed. Neonates delivered at gestational ages 28 weeks or more were examined within 48 h of birth for external congenital anomalies. Detailed family history and clinical data were recorded for each child. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Of the 1456 neonates recruited into the study, there were 757 (52%) boys and 699 (48%) girls. Of these, 4 neonates (2 boys and 2 girls) had NTDs (male:female ratio = 1:1), giving a birth prevalence of NTDs (2 spina bifida cystic, 1 anencephaly, and 1 encephalocele) of 2.75/1000 live births. The mean gestational age for the neonates with NTDs was 38 weeks (standard deviation [SD] 2.16 weeks) while their mean birth weight was 2.93 kg (SD 0.51 kg). Only 5.03% of the mothers in this study began the use of folic acid-containing multivitamin supplement at least 1-month before or in the 1 st month of the index pregnancy. Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of NTDs in this study, public health measures aimed at the prevention of this anomaly should be encouraged.
  3,153 278 1
Primary ocular prosthesis in patients undergoing evisceration, enucleation and socket reconstruction in north central Nigeria: A multi-center study
Keziah Nanier Malu, Dalton N Gbanan, Eric Ogbor
July-September 2015, 2(3):128-133
Background: Facial disfigurement especially of the eye can cause a lot of psychological impact on one's life. After evisceration or enucleation, primary ocular prosthesis (POP) not only provides immediate cosmetic rehabilitation, but also helps the individual regain self-confidence to resume normal life. The aim of this study was to assess the surgical outcome of evisceration and enucleation with POP in patients with endophthalmitis/panophthalmitis and allied conditions. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-center prospective study by the authors at three centers in Makurdi of patients undergoing destructive and socket reconstructive eye surgeries who had ocular prosthesis (OP [artificial eye]) inserted as a primary procedure from January 2010 to June 2014. Results: Eighteen patients had OP fitted at the operating table. There were 13 males (72%) and 5 females, with male to female ratio of 2.6:1. The median age was 45.5 years. Half of the patients 9 (50%) were farmers. Indications for surgery were infection 10 (55.6%), corneal degeneration 4 (22.2%) and one each had trauma, tumor, anophthalmos and shallow socket. Fifteen (83.3%) patients had evisceration. There were no postoperative infections during the follow-up period. There was small degree of enophthalmos in 16 (88.9%) and slight color mismatch in17 (94.4%). The OP movement with the fellow eye was fair in all the patients. Conclusion: Insertion of POP did not cause progression of infection in patients undergoing evisceration or enucleation. Where resources are not available for an orbital implant before prosthesis, POP can be fitted without the fear of progress of infection.
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Clinical significance of glycated hemoglobin testing in obese subjects attending a tertiary hospital at Calabar, Nigeria
Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Agu Chidozie Elochukwu, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Iya Eze Bassey, Ekpe A Udoh
July-September 2015, 2(3):134-141
Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been suggested to be a reliable alternative to fasting plasma glucose in diagnosing hyperglycemia and monitoring glycemic control especially in individuals with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity has been largely incriminated to be a major risk factor for T2DM. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), anthropometric measurements and glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) in obese subjects attending the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective comparative study that which compared the levels of glycated hemoglobin in 70 obese and 30 nonobese control participants. Whole blood HbA1c was quantified using kits from Pointe scientific Inc. USA. The method was controlled and validated using Pointe™ control reagents from the manufacturer. Results: The mean HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio for obese participants were; 6.13 ± 2.76%, 128.14 ± 12.65 mmHg, 88.56 ± 11.87 mmHg, 106.90 ± 13.52 and 0.87 ± 0.072, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of the nonobese control subjects with HbA1c, SBP and DBP of 5.34 ± 1.15, 114.00 ± 7.24 mmHg and 88.56 ± 11.87 mmHg (P < 0.05). A significant mean difference was observed between all the classes of obesity (Class I-III) and the control in all the parameters. A positive correlation between BMI, anthropometric measurements and HbA1c was observed in obese participants (r = 0.341 P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that obese individuals have higher risk of developing T2DM if appropriate interventions are not considered. Glycated hemoglobin may be used as a reliable, feasible, and fairly accurate tool for screening and assessing blood glycemic control in obese subjects who are at risk of developing T2DM.
  2,641 192 -
The perception of senior hospital staff on the role of eye care providers in Zaria, Nigeria
Emmanuel Raphael Abah, Peter Yisa Jiya, Dominic Chinda, Onyemocho Audu, Garba Farouk, Istifanus Anekoson Joshua
July-September 2015, 2(3):142-146
Background: Patients or their relations usually seek the opinion of hospital staff after self-treatment, patent medical vendors' prescriptions or other first line treatment has failed. It is therefore, critical for them to have a fair idea of the role of different cadre of eye care providers to enable them offer appropriate help and referral. This study assessed the perception of senior hospital workers on the Role of Eye Care Providers in Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using a stratified sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was administered to each of 428 hospital staff in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika-Zaria in July, 2013. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical package. Results: The study population (428) comprised of 177 nurses, 108 doctors, 85 administrative staff, 37 laboratory scientists, 10 pharmacists, and 11 health information officers. The male:female ratio was 1.2:1 while the age range was 20-59 years with a mean age of 33 ± 5.7 years. Three hundred and thirty-seven (78.7%) of the respondents were familiar with the role of the ophthalmologist and 309 (72.2%) with that of the ophthalmic nurse. About half of the respondents were familiar with the role of the other cadre of eye care providers: 222 (51.9%) understood the role of a Community Health Officer, 215 (50.2%) understood that of the optometrist and 214 (50.0%) understood the role of the optician. Conclusion: Senior hospital workers were quite familiar with the role of an ophthalmologist and an ophthalmic nurse, but they need to be educated more about the role of the other cadre of eye care providers.
  2,063 126 -
Factors which predict violence victimization in Kenya
Lincoln Jacob Fry
July-September 2015, 2(3):117-122
Aims: The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that predict interpersonal violence at the personal level in Kenya. Another aim is to interpret the implications of the study for violence prevention programs. Setting and design: Study is set in Kenya and is based on the responses of 2,399 collected in 2012. Methods and materials: The study's dependent variable is reported violence victimization. Results: The logistical regression analysis identified seven factors that predicted violence victimization. These included being the victim of a property crime, payment of bribes to the police, fear of crime in the neighborhood, poverty, whether there was a police station in the neighborhood, whether the police were visible in the area, and the respondent's trust in the neighbors. The surprising finding was that 72 percent of the violence victims were also property crime victims. Conclusion: The findings imply that target hardening should be the basis used to implement violence prevention programs in Kenya. It appears that crime prevention efforts 5 should begin with law enforcement personnel when they respond to reported crime, property or violent offenses. These findings suggest that there is an ongoing need to protect victims from re-victimization by preparing them to protect both their premises and their persons in the future.
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Nonstructural protein 1: A tool for early dengue diagnosis
Ekadashi Rajni Sabharwal
July-September 2015, 2(3):147-148
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