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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-28

The Effect of food hygiene training among street food vendors in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria


1 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Nursing Services, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication20-Jun-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ahmad A Umar
Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/ssajm.ssajm_30_17

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  Abstract 


Background: The training of food handlers with regard to the hazards associated with their products, its safe handling, and the preparation of food following good hygienic practices, as practicable under local street-vending conditions, is an essential part of any strategy to improve the safety and quality of street-vended food. People are becoming increasingly concerned about the health risks posed by microbial pathogens and potentially hazardous chemicals in food, especially those that may enter food during its preparation or while serving. This study assessed the effect of health education training on food hygiene habits among street food vendors in Sabon Gari Local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study consisting of pre- and postintervention components was conducted among 109 adult street food vendors who sell cooked food or other food items by the roadside or open spaces in Sabon Gari LGA. Multistage sampling technique was used for selecting the respondents. Training intervention was conducted for the study group over a period of 6 weeks, and data were collected using observation checklist and pretested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions before and after intervention. The data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 software (IBM-SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States).
Results: There was significant improvement in the knowledge and the practice of food hygiene, from 46.7 to 53.3%, among the street food vendors in the study area after the training intervention. However, change with regard to knowledge and the practice of food hygiene seen in the street food vendors belonging to the control LGA at the end of the study was from 50.4 to 49.6%. In the intervention arm of the study, there were changes in food hygiene (30.9–69.1%) and environmental sanitation (23.1–76.9%) practices. In addition, it was also determined whether the changes were statistically significant or not. However, changes seen in the control LGA were not as remarkable, with food hygiene and environmental sanitation practices improving from 49.0 to 51.0% and 46.8 to 53.2%, respectively.
Conclusion: There was improvement in the knowledge and the practice of food hygiene among street food vendors in the study area after the training intervention. Hence, appropriate authorities should ensure a periodic training of street food vendors on food hygiene.

Keywords: Food hygiene and street food vendors, health education, training


How to cite this article:
Umar AA, Mande AT, Umar J. The Effect of food hygiene training among street food vendors in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Afr J Med 2018;5:20-8

How to cite this URL:
Umar AA, Mande AT, Umar J. The Effect of food hygiene training among street food vendors in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Afr J Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 19];5:20-8. Available from: http://www.ssajm.org/text.asp?2018/5/1/20/234756




  Introduction Top


Street-vended foods are associated with significant health risks because of various reasons including storage without refrigeration throughout the day thereby allowing considerable microbial growth to occur, clean water may not be available for washing produce, hands, or utensils, and appropriate toilet facilities may also be lacking. While on display, foods may not be protected from the flies and rodents that increase the risks of contamination with pathogens, vendors may have a poor knowledge of basic food hygiene measures, with no qualified inspection to regulate their activities, and there may be a lack of public awareness regarding the possible dangers associated with such foods.

Associations between street-vended foods and diarrheal disease have been noted in epidemiological studies. Lim-Quizon et al. cited an unpublished study conducted in the Philippines that showed cholera patients being eight times more likely to report having bought street foods than healthy controls. The same authors went on to identify an association between cholera and particular street foods such as the following: pansit (rice noodles with shrimp, meat, and vegetables) and mussel soup.[1] The potential of street-vended foods to act as vehicles for foodborne illness has been supported by a number of microbiological studies. People with diarrhea or other symptoms of gastroenteritis disease while they are symptomatic should not work in areas where food is handled, irrespective of the kind of job involved. Explosive vomiting and diarrhea commonly occur as a result of viral gastroenteritis and can cause a widespread contamination of the immediate environment and directly infect other people. Cross-contamination can also occur when areas are improperly cleaned or sanitized. When vomiting occurs in a food handling area, any exposed food should be disposed off. The areas should be cleaned and subsequently disinfected with a freshly prepared hypochlorite-based cleaner.[2]

The training of food handlers particularly regarding the hazards confronting their products, its safe handling, and the preparation of food following good hygienic practices, as practicable under local street-vending conditions, is an essential part of any strategy to improve the safety and quality of street-vended food.[3] This should, ideally, be performed in conjunction with licensing, but ongoing education and training sessions at intervals are strongly suggested. Viewed from a general perspective, most foodborne hazards may be prevented by thorough cooking, hot holding, rapid cooling, cold storage, avoiding cross-contamination, or a combination of these. However, street-vended foods and their preparation and handling vary enormously among countries, reflecting the unique characteristics of the societies. Moreover, even within countries, the variations in the preparation and handling of street-vended foods are often considerable.[3] Consequently, training and education programs should be based on the food safety hazards presented by the local street food situation and the development of training materials for vendors has to be tailored to meet their needs and situations.

The low level of education among most street food vendors makes training difficult and, of course, precludes training them in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. Consequently, rather different approaches must be adopted for training street food vendors.[3] Training materials addressing the issues with simple messages must be developed and used to improve the safety of street-vended foods. Governments can facilitate this process by using the information that has been gathered during HACCP studies to recommend monitoring procedures and corrective actions for training street food vendors.[4] This information can also be used to inform food safety program administrators and supervisors about the hazards associated with street food preparation and to influence program activity priorities. Furthermore, by identifying the critical practices of specific street food vending operations and by helping to rank operations according to risk, HACCP can be used to target the education and training of those street-vending operations wherein they will be of the greatest benefit in protecting public health. All vendors of high-risk foods should be trained in safe food-handling practices, and certification may prove a useful tool to identify those with appropriate training.[5] Perhaps the greatest limitation to such a requirement is the inadequate resources of most health agencies and their inability to provide the training required for such a large and diverse group as street food vendors.

Street food vendors play an important role in the etiology of foodborne disease outbreaks. Foodborne disease pathogens may be transferred by street food vendors to food either directly or by cross-contamination. Reports have shown that an important factor influencing the level of the contamination of food is the knowledge of food hygiene among street food vendors and its correct application by them, in addition to other variables such as their health status and personal hygiene.[6],[7],[8] Street food vendors are often poorly educated, untrained in food safety methods, and are seen to work under unsanitary conditions with little or no infrastructure support.[9] However, research has shown that the majority of food-related illnesses and death could be controlled, or eliminated, by the use of proper food handling techniques.[10]

Therefore, the education and training of street food vendors on food hygiene may prove to be the most cost-effective way to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases. The health education of street food vendors to improve their hygiene-related knowledge and practice is of paramount importance in the prevention and control of foodborne diseases.[11] The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed on the same for reducing the chances of food contamination. However, research in this area has been given low attention in developing countries, including Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the effect of training on food hygiene practices among street food vendors in Sabon Gari Local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State.


  Materials and methods Top


Study area

Sabon Gari LGA is one of the 23 LGAs of Kaduna State, created on 27th August, 1991. It has 58 health facilities in its 11 political wards and six districts, which are overseen by 332 staff of the primary health care (PHC) department. The PHC department has various units among which is the Disease Control Unit, which is further divided into three as water, sanitation, and food hygiene. There are many street food vendors hawking different kinds of foods and food materials in almost all the streets, but there are no records of their number and or activities in the Health Department of the LGA. However, there are 23 registered food establishments (restaurants) in the LGA and the staff of Disease Control Unit usually perform inspection of these establishments quarterly, but additional inspection may be conducted when disease outbreaks such as cholera occur.[12]

The control population was obtained from Igabi LGA of Kaduna State, which was created in the year 1989. It shares borders with the following LGAs: Kaduna North, Birnin Gwari, Kaduna South, Giwa, Kauru, Soba, Kajuru, and Chikun. It covers a land area of 37,000 square kilometers and has a projected total population of 300,017 (2006 census). It has 12 wards and 14 districts. There are 65 health facilities under the PHC department of the LGA, which is manned by 383 staff. There are many food restaurants and street food vendors in the area, but they are not officially registered with the Health Department of the LGA.[13]

Study design and study population

The study design was quasi-experimental consisting of pre- and postintervention components. The study was conducted among 109 adult street food vendors who sell cooked food or food items by the roadside or open spaces in Sabon Gari LGA. All street food vendors who were mobile (ambulatory) and those operating in restaurants and other established food businesses were excluded.

Sampling technique

Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting respondents through the following stages:
  1. Stage 1 (selection of study and control LGAs): the selection of two LGAs was performed using balloting from the list of 23 LGAs of Kaduna State. Then, using a simple toss of coin, Sabon Gari was selected as the study LGA, whereas Igabi became the control LGA.
  2. Stage 2 (selection of wards): in each of the two selected LGAs, a list of all the political wards was drawn, and using balloting, two political wards were selected.
  3. Stage 3 (selection of settlements): four settlements were selected from the list of settlements in every chosen ward using balloting method.
  4. Stage 4 (selection of streets): five streets to be used were randomly selected using balloting from the list of all streets in each selected settlement.
  5. Stage 5 (selection of street food vendors): on the basis of the sampling frame of street food vendors in every street, proportionate allocation was used to select 109 street food vendors for the study. Using balloting, the number of street food vendors to be studied was selected based on the proportion allocated for that street.


Study instruments and data collection methods

Data were collected using pretested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions before and after health education intervention. Prior to data collection, five research assistants were trained for 2 days on the tools and data collection techniques to be used in the study. The questionnaire was pretested in a LGA different from that of the study and control groups, and some adjustments were made. An observation checklist was used to collect data on personal hygiene and the hygiene of the vending site.

In both study and control LGAs, the researcher and research assistants interviewed the street food vendors in a convenient place such as near the site or the location of their businesses. Data regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and the knowledge and attitudes toward various aspects of food hygiene practices were collected. There was a limited (inspection only) general physical examination of the street food vendors, with observation of the general surroundings, cooking utensils, plates, and the manner of serving food using a checklist. However, body samples such as stool and urine were not collected. The training intervention was conducted in six interactive sessions with street food vendors in groups of 10. Each session lasted for approximately 60 min. There were two sessions per week with a repeat of the two previous sessions in the following week. These resulted in a total of 12 interactive sessions (including the repeat sessions), which were aimed at facilitating the assimilation of the lessons or information given.

After the completion of the 12 sessions of training, at least four different sessions of monitoring and supportive supervision were conducted to ensure that the learnt skills were practiced. The supervision was conducted biweekly in the first month and monthly in the subsequent 2 months after the intervention. A postintervention evaluation was conducted concurrently in both the study and control LGAs on the same respondents (street food vendors) who participated in the preintervention evaluation using the same data collection tools and the same research team. The street food vendors’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding various aspects of food hygiene were assessed. In addition, a limited (inspection only) general physical examination of the street food vendors was performed with observation of the general surroundings, cooking utensils, plates, and the manner of serving food using a checklist. However, body samples such as stool and urine were not collected.

Statistical analyses

The data obtained were entered, cleaned, and coding when necessary, and analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 software (IBM-SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States).[14] Results were presented in tables, charts, graphs, and bivariate analysis using cross-tabulations to infer on the relationship between relevant variables. Summary statistics using mean, standard deviations, and percent were calculated for each quantitative variable, and the statistical significance of the relationship between the variables were determined using chi-square test (for qualitative or categorical variables) with P-value ≤ 0.05.

Ethical considerations

Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical and Scientific Committee of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria. Permission was obtained from the PHC departments of Sabon Gari and Igabi LGAs, and a signed or thumb-printed (as the case may be) written consent was obtained from every respondent before data collection. Confidentiality regarding their identity and the information given was assured. Any participant who did not consent to participate in the study was excluded. The control group was also given the same training intervention after the postintervention activities.


  Results Top


A total of 218 street food vendors (109 each from study and control LGAs) were interviewed during preintervention assessment using interviewer-administered questionnaire. An observation checklist was used to assess personal and food hygiene, as well as the vending sites of the street food vendors. However, 108 and 107 street food vendors were interviewed during the post-intervention in the study and control LGAs, respectively. The majority of street food vendors in the study LGA (Sabon Gari LGA) were within the age groups of 35–39 and 40–44 years (20.2% each), whereas in the control LGA (Igabi LGA), the majority of the street food vendors belonged to the age group of 45–49 years (27.5%). Most of the respondents were females (68.8 and 69.7% for Sabon Gari and Igabi LGAs, respectively). In both the LGAs, most of the street food vendors were married (69.7 and 47.7% for Sabon Gari and Igabi LGAs, respectively). In Igabi, less than half were married, not most of them. Moreover, most of the respondents in Igabi LGA (22.0%) were widowed as compared to those in Sabon Gari, where only 8.3% of the respondents were under this category. Statistical test results show there was no significant association between the respondents in the study and control LGAs; hence, they were not comparable in terms of age and sex. In both the LGAs, most of the street food vendors did not attend more than the primary level of education (35.8 and 44.0% for Sabon Gari and Igabi LGAs, respectively), although more respondents in Sabon Gari (33.9%) than Igabi (18.3) LGAs had attended secondary level of education. Only 3.7% of the respondents in Igabi LGA operate permanently or had stationary street food vending as compared to 12.8% of the respondents in Sabon Gari LGA. Most (49.5%) of the people who patronized the street food vendors in Sabon Gari area were passersby as compared to the (38.5%) customers in Igabi LGA, where most of the customers were reported to be civil servants. In both the LGAs, majority of the street food vendors operated under a shade (50.5 and 49.5% for Sabon Gari and Igabi LGA, respectively). All (100.0%) the street food vendors in Sabon Gari area had not received training on personal and food hygiene. With regard to training, the finding was similarly high (86.2%) in Igabi LGA, where majority (56.0%) of the respondents were in business for <5 years [Table 1].
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of street food vendors in Sabon Gari and Igabi LGAs

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Before intervention in the study LGA, 58 (98.3%) street food vendors had inadequate knowledge of food and personal hygiene, whereas 51 (32.3%) street food vendors had adequate knowledge. However, data collected after intervention showed that 107 (67.7%) street food vendors had adequate knowledge of food and personal hygiene. This is contrary to the results obtained from the control LGA, wherein minimal changes (0.8%) with regard to the knowledge on food and personal hygiene were noted among street food vendors at the end of the study [Table 2].
Table 2: Knowledge of food and personal hygiene among street food vendors in the study and control LGAs

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Before training, in the study LGA, 46 (30.9%) street food vendors were observed to have good food hygiene habits, whereas 49.0% of the street food vendors were observed to have good food hygiene habits in the control LGA. However, after the training intervention, a statistically significant number (103; 69.1%) of street food vendors displayed good food hygiene habits, with none of the street food vendors (P ≤ 0.05) displaying poor food hygiene habits. In the control LGA, however, minimal changes in food hygiene habits were observed among the street food vendors, and these changes were not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) [Table 3]. There were few changes in personal hygiene observed among the street food vendors in the control LGA, and the changes were not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). However, there was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in good personal hygiene habits (from 8.3% obtained before intervention to 92.7% after intervention) among street food vendors in the study LGA [Table 4].
Table 3: Food hygiene among street food vendors in the study and control LGAs

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Table 4: Personal hygiene among street food vendors in the study and control LGAs

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There was an increase in good environmental sanitation practices at food vending sites, from 27 (23.1%) to 90 (76.9%), after intervention in the study LGA. This increase was, however, not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). In the control LGA, the increase in good environment sanitation practices rose from 22 (46.8%) at the beginning of the study to 25 (53.2%) at the end of the study. There was, however, reduction in the fair sanitation observed (50.9%) when the study began to 49.1% at the end of the study. These changes were, however, not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) [Table 5].
Table 5: Environmental sanitation status of food vending sites in the study and control LGAs

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Most of the respondents (102; 95.3%) with adequate knowledge of food and personal hygiene practices had good food hygiene habits as observed during the study. There was no statistical association between knowledge and food hygiene after the intervention in the study LGA. In the study LGA before intervention, of the 55 (50.4%) street food vendors with poor personal hygiene, 39 (76.5%) had adequate knowledge on food and personal hygiene. Approximately 63% of the respondents (37; 63.8%) with fair personal hygiene habits had inadequate knowledge regarding food and personal hygiene. However, after the intervention, 100 (92.6%) street food vendors with adequate knowledge had good personal hygiene habits as observed during the study, but there was no statistically significant association between knowledge and personal hygiene after the intervention [Table 6].
Table 6: Knowledge by food and personal hygiene observed among street food vendors in the study LGAKnowledgeFood hygienePersonal hygieneBefore intervention (n = 109)Frequency (%)After intervention (n = 108)Frequency (%)Before intervention (n = 109)Frequency (%)After intervention (n = 108)Frequency (%)PoorFairGoodFairGoodPoorFairGoodFairGoodInadequate14 (24.1)8 (13.8)36 (62.1)–1 (100)16 (27.6)37 (63.8)5 (8.6)–1 (100)Adequate39 (76.5)2 (3.9)10 (19.6)5 (4.7)102 (95.3)39 (76.5)8 (15.7)4 (7.8)8 (7.5)99 (92.5)Total53 (48.6)10 (9.2)46 (42.2)5 (4.6)103 (95.4)55 (50.4)45 (41.3)9 (8.3)8 (7.4)100 (92.6) χ2 = 29.711, P = 0.000χ2 = 0.049, P = 0.825χ2 = 28.084, P = 0.000χ2 = 0.081, P = 0.776

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  Discussion Top


The sociodemographic characteristics of street food vendors showed that majority of the street food vendors in Sabon Gari LGA were aged <40 years (54.2%), but the majority (50.9%) of the vendors in the control LGA were aged 40 years and above. This finding was similar to that observed by studies conducted in Ghana and India, where it was found that majority of the street food vendors were aged <40 years, 70.0 and 60.3%, respectively.[15],[16] In this study, most of the respondents were females, 68.8 and 69.7% in the study and control LGAs, respectively. This was similar to a study in Ghana, where all (100%) the street food vendors were females, but it was in contrast to the study in India, where majority of the vendors were males (97.4%).[15],[16] Tomlins reported that in several African countries, street food vendors are frequently women (in 70–90% of the cases).[17] In the study LGA, most of the street food vendors were married (69.7%), 69.7% had received formal education (up to secondary level), and the majority (57.8%) had spent more than 5 years in the profession. However, 47.7% of the street food vendors were married, 63.2% had received formal education, and 44.1% had spent more than 5 years vending street foods in the control LGA. This finding was also similar to the that observed in the studies conducted in Ghana and India, where 59.7 and 80.1% of the street food vendors had received formal education, respectively, and 69.5% had spent more than 5 years in the profession.[15],[16] However, Jacob reported that, in the United Kingdom, street food vendors were often poor and uneducated and failed to appreciate the importance of safe food handling practices.[18]

Most (49.5%) of the people who patronized the street food vendors in Sabon Gari area were passersby, but it was civil servants (35.8%) in the control LGA. Majority, 50.5 and 45.9%, of the street food vendors operated under a shade in Sabon Gari and Igabi LGAs, respectively. However, a study in Ghana showed that 94.9% of the customers were workers, and majority of the vending sites were the open-air type.[19] WHO has recognized that there are differences in the places where street foods are prepared and can be broadly grouped as follows: food prepared in small-scale food factories or traditional workshops, food prepared in the home, food prepared in markets, and food prepared on the street. These categories reflect a growing difficulty to provide adequate infrastructure and environmental hygiene to ensure the safe production of food.[20],[21] All (100.0%) street food vendors in Sabon Gari area had not received training on personal and food hygiene. This is contrary to what was reported in a study conducted in Darlington, wherein 21.9% of the food handlers had reported to have had formal training, 10.7% reported no formal training, and the remaining reported to have received a combination of formal and informal training.[22] It is important to remember that knowledge may be markedly influenced by factors other than formal training, and experience, common sense, and a positive attitude toward hygiene may all be important in some cases.[4]

In the study LGA, 98.3% of the street food vendors had inadequate knowledge of food and personal hygiene practices, whereas 32.3% of street food vendors had adequate knowledge. However, data collected after intervention showed an improvement of 67.7% with regard to an adequate knowledge of food and personal hygiene (P ≤ 0.05) among the street food vendors. This was much higher than the levels of knowledge, 30.8 and 57.0%, found after intervention among street food vendors in Ghana and India, respectively.[15],[16] The level of food hygiene understanding is often judged to be good, suggesting that the lack of an appropriate infrastructure is the principal cause of the problem.[4] All (100.0%) the street food vendors had good attitude toward personal and food hygiene practices before and after intervention in the study LGA. A similar result was obtained in the control LGA, where all (100.0%) the respondents had good attitude toward personal and food hygiene practices both at the beginning and at the end of the study. More than 90% of the street food vendors were observed to have positive attitude toward all the statements favoring personal hygiene and most of the statements favoring food hygiene at the baseline. This was in conformity with some earlier observations by Angelillo in Italy.[19],[23] Traditional and social desirability of these hygienic practices may have influenced the street food vendors and resulted in these high figures, even before formal health education.

Before training, about 30.9% of the street food vendors were observed to have good food hygiene habits in the study LGA, whereas 49.0% were observed to have good food hygiene habits in the control LGA. After the training (intervention), a statistically significant number (69.1%) of street food vendors were observed to have good food hygiene habits, with poor hygiene habits being observed among none of the street food vendors (P ≤ 0.05). In the control LGA, however, minimal changes in food hygiene habits were observed among the street food vendors, and these changes were not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). The five keys of safer food have been successfully utilized in an evidence-based training program for the vendors to improve their food handling practices.[24] Food vendors can be a source of food contamination and facilitators of cross-contamination. The personal hygiene of food vendors is extremely important for the prevention of food poisoning, which is principally associated with cleanliness of the hands.[25]

There was an increase in good environmental sanitation practices, from 23.1 to 76.9%, at food vending sites after intervention in the study LGA. This increase was, however, not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). In the control LGA, an increase in good environmental sanitation practices was observed, which was 46.8% at the beginning of the study, increasing to 53.2% at the end of the study. There was, however, a reduction in the fair sanitation practices observed, which was 50.9% when the study began, reducing to 49.1% at the end of the study. These changes were, however, not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Several factors are known to favor the occurrence of foodborne diseases during food handling processes. These factors among others are poor personal and environmental hygiene and improper food storage.[26] Studies conducted in Ethiopia indicated that the poor sanitary conditions of food establishments such as the lack of cleanliness, inadequate sanitary facilities, and improper waste management were common factors affecting food safety in food establishments.[27],[28],[29]In the study LGA, 97.2% of the vending sites were observed to have a space where customers could sit and eat. In addition, 94.5 and 91.7% of the food vending sites in the study LGA had chairs/benches where customers could sit to eat and a cooking spot separated from the serving area, respectively. There were, however, fewer of such features at the food vending sites in the control LGA, where 83.5, 86.2, and 78.9% of the food vending sites were observed to have space where customers could sit and eat, chair/bench for customers to sit, and cooking spot separated from the serving area, respectively. Poor environmental sanitation and disregard for hygienic measures on the part of street food vendors are some of the key factors responsible for the transmission of foodborne diseases.[30]


  Conclusion Top


There was an improvement in the knowledge and practice of food hygiene among street food vendors in the study area after training intervention. Hence, appropriate authorities should ensure that periodic training should be implemented for street food vendors on food hygiene.

Recommendations

  1. The PHC departments of Sabon Gari and Igabi LGAs should ensure that the heads of Disease Control Units conduct regular training sessions for the street food vendors in their areas of assignment. This will promote better food and personal hygiene among the street food vendors.
  2. The Kaduna State Ministry of Health, Ministry for Local Government, Local Government Service Board, and the PHC departments of Sabon Gari and Igabi should ensure that regular training sessions are conducted for health workers involved in the monitoring and evaluation of food houses and street food vendors. This will help the staff concerned with the conducting of supportive supervision for the street food vendors.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Lim-Quizon MC, Benabaye RM, White FM. Cholera in metropolitan Manila: Foodborne transmission via street vendors. Bull World Health Organ 1994;72:745-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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World Health Organization. Essential Safety Requirements for Street-Vended Foods. Geneva, Switzerland: Food Safety Unit, WHO; 1996. WHO/FNU/FOS/96. 7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Jacob M. Safe Food Handling − A Training Guide for Managers of Food Service Establishments. Geneva: WHO; 1989.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Food and Agricultural Organization. Street-Food Vendors Around the World. FAO News and Highlights; 2001. Available from: www.fao.org/News/2001/010804-e.htm. [Last accessed on 2011 Nov 13].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Todd EC, Greig JD, Bartleson CA, Michaels BS. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 2. Description of outbreaks by size, severity, and settings. J Food Prot 2007;70:1975-93.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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International Business Machine. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 20. USA: International Business Machine Corporation; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Mensah P, Yeboah-Manu D, Owusu-Darko K, Ablordey A. Street-foods in Accra, Ghana: How safe are they? Bull WHO 2002;80:546-54.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Rahul M, Panna L, Krishna PS, Daga MK, Jugal K. Evaluation of a health education intervention on knowledge and attitudes of food handlers working in a medical college in Delhi, India. Asia Pac J Public Health 2008;20:277-86.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Tomlins K. Street foods in Ghana: A source of income but not without its hazards. Public Health Action News, No. 5, March 2002, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 2002.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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