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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 96-101

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella species isolates from diarrheal stool of patients in a tertiary health facility in northeastern Nigeria


1 Department of Microbiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
3 Department of Geography, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ballah A Denue
Departments of Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/ssajm.ssajm_7_17

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Background: Shigella is a frequent cause of bacterial diarrhea especially in sub Saharan Africa region. Antimicrobial chemotherapy is recommended for diarrheal disease due to Shigella species, but the options are limited by emerging resistance. Aim: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella species isolated from diarrheal stool of patients in a tertiary health facility in northeastern Nigeria. Patients and methods: This prospective cross sectional study was conducted in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital from 2nd January to 29th December 2013. Diarrheal stool samples were consecutively collected from all consenting patients from Emergency pediatric unit, General out patients and Medical clinics. Shigella species were detected by biochemical and serological tests. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of these isolates was studied by disk diffusion Method. Results: A total of 400 diarrheal stool samples were considered, shigella species isolation rate was 32(8%). It consisted of shigella flexneri 15(46.9%), shigella dysenteriae 12(37.5%), shigella sonnei 5(15.6%), no shigella boydii specie was identified. The shigella species were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin and Cefuroxime. Resistance to these antimicrobial were as follows: Gentamycin (28.1%), Tetracycline (31.2%) and Amoxycyllin (75%). At least 4 out of every 5 isolates were resistant to Chloromphenicol, Ampicillin and Norfloxacin. The highest resistance of 93.8% was exhibited against Cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Shigellosis is a recognized cause of bacterial diarrhea in our setting. In this study, Shigella flexneri was the most commonest isolated species followed by S. dysentriae. There was no resistance against Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Cefuroxime. At least 4 out of every 5 isolates were resistant to Chloromphenicol, Ampicillin and Nitrofurantoin. Cotrimoxazole showed highest resistance pattern.


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