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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 142-147

Seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus antibodies in Hiv-positive and Hiv-negative adults in Nigeria


1 Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease and Immunology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria
3 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Infectious and Tropical Disease Unit, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mukhtar Abdulmajid Adeiza
Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, PMB 06, Shika, Zaria
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/2384-5147.190852

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Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS reported in the Western literature. There is a paucity of reports on the seroprevalence of CMV antibodies in Nigeria despite the high HIV burden. Few studies were carried out in pregnant women and healthy blood donors. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the seroepidemiology of CMV antibodies in HIV-positive and healthy adults in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Between August 2012 and March 2013, a structured questionnaire was administered to 250 HIV-positive patients attending the HIV clinic and 250 HIV-negative controls matched for age and gender. Participants were screened for quantitative CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and qualitative CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, risk for HIV infection, and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed with SPSS Version 17. Results: A total of 500 participants were recruited. Females comprised 54%. Median age for males was 39 years (range 17-65 years), whereas for females, it was 35 years (range 16-62 years) (P = 0.002). In HIV-positive patients, CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 215 (86%) and 33 (13.2%), respectively, but in HIV-negative controls, it was 182 (72.8%) and 7 (2.8%), respectively (P = 0.001). In HIV-positive patients, CMV IgG age-specific seroprevalence was highest in the 16-25 years age group (93.5%), whereas CMV IgM, it was highest in the 26-35 years age group (16.1%). Mean quantitative CMV IgG antibody titer was higher in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.001). There was no gender difference between groups. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of CMV antibodies is high in Nigeria. HIV preventive strategies and routine screening of HIV patients and blood donors for CMV antibodies before blood transfusion are recommended to minimize the potential risk of transfusion transmitted CMV infection.


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