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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 191-197

Relationship of ultrasound renal echogenicity, serum creatinine level and CD4 cell counts in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy


1 Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria
3 Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye
Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/2384-5147.144733

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Background: There is a paucity of information on the relationship of renal ultrasound echogenicity and serum creatinine levels to CD4 cell counts in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in our local environment. This necessitated the conduct of this study. Aims and objectives: To establish a relationship between renal ultrasound echogenicity and serum creatinine levels and CD4 cell counts in adult patients with HIVAN. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study of 100 consecutively confirmed HIV-seropositive patients aged between 19 and 65 years (mean ± standard deviation: 35 ± 10.79) comprising 32 males and 68 females with clinical and laboratory features of HIVAN was conducted at the infectious disease clinic of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, between April 2011 and September 2012. Materials and Methods: The subjects underwent renal ultrasound scan, and the degree of parenchymal echogenicity was recorded. Serum creatinine levels and CD4 lymphocyte counts were also obtained for all the patients. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were recorded on Data sheet and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. Results: Of the 100 cases studied (i.e., 200 kidneys), ultrasound showed abnormal echogenicity in 192 kidneys (96%) with a grade I echogenicity in 4 patients (4%), grade II echogenicity in 36 patients (36%) and grade III echogenicity in 56 patients (56%). Four patients (4%) had a normal renal echogenicity. Majority of the patients had grade III renal echogenicity. The lower the CD4 count, the higher the degree of the renal echogenicity. Although, the higher the serum creatinine levels, the higher the degree of the renal echogenicity. Conclusion: The degree of the renal echogenicity was found to be inversely proportional to the CD4 cell counts. Prognosis also worsens with higher serum creatinine and lower CD4 cell counts.


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