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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-90

Microalbuminuria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zaria, Nigeria


1 Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Haematology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Rasheed Yusuf
Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/2384-5147.136818

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Introduction: Microalbuminuria (MA) an early marker of glomerular dysfunction is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, and is frequently seen among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Measurement of MA is not routinely done in many HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in our environment, especially those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study was to determine the prevalence of MA among HIV/AIDS patients in Zaria. Subjects and Methods: Screening for MA was carried out in this cross-sectional study involving 101 HIV/AIDS patients on ART. Patients with hypertension, diabetes, renal disease, pregnancy, and with features suggestive of malignancy were excluded from the study. Urinary albumin and creatinine, serum creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, and CD4 count were assayed. The data obtained were analyzed using the statistical software package for the social sciences version 16.0 (SPSS 16.0). Result: The mean values for urine albumin, urine creatinine, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) were 9.35 mg/L ± 1.32 mg/L, 6.50 mmol/L ± 0.35 mmol/L and 1.77 mg/mmol ± 0.34 mg/mmol, respectively. Twenty-one (20.8%) patients were found to have MA (ACR 3-30 mg/mmol) with remaining 80 (79.2%) having normoalbuminuria (ACR <3 mg/mmol). Among patients with MA, 6 (5.9%) had estimated creatinine clearance of <60 ml/min. There was a statistically significant association (P < 0.001) between ACR and age in microalbuminuric patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of MA is high among HIV/AIDS patients on ART in Zaria. Routine measurement of microalbumin in urine is suggested for early identification of renal disease and CVD and possibly reduces morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS infection.


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